First, we all know that cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in our environment today, but few take the time to understand why it happens and what factors prevent it from developing.
-That is why today I bring you some information about this disease.
Let’s start with the following:
What are mutations?
Any change in the genome is interpreted as an alteration in the DNA base sequence that determines an alteration in its primary structure.
Mutant > organism with characteristics different from the wild-type phenotype concerning a particular character.
Wild phenotypes> are those initially affected by the mutation. And it does not present manifest alterations in the genome.
Mutagenesis: the process by which mutation occurs.
It is divided into three types:
●Spontaneous or natural: Process produced by nature without knowing the causative agent of the mutation.
●Induced: The causative agent is known. It is used in studies on the function of genes and physicochemical factors of management.
●Directed: The mutants are obtained by the recombinant DNA technique.
Mutagens: factors that cause mutations.
Types of mutations:
×Microlesions or point mutations. ×Frameshifts. ×Macrolesions.
Explanation of each type of Mutation:
●Microlesions: These are minor alterations in the genome that affect a pair of bases.
-Substitution: occurs when one base pair is exchanged for another.
-Transition occurs when a base pair is exchanged for another of the same type.
-Transversion occurs when a base pair is exchanged for a different one.
●Frameshifts: They consist of deletions or additions of a small # of base pairs. A forward (deletion) or backward (addition) shift of the codon reading frame occurs by one or more bases. This type of mutation can lead to highly altered, non-functional proteins.
●Macrolesions: They are multigenic mutations; that is, they affect several genes.
-Deletion: Loss of a segment of genetic material from a chromosome.
-Insertion: Part of an arm of a chromosome is inserted into the arm of a non-analogous chromosome.
-Rearrangement: Change in the typical arrangement of genes.
-Duplication: repetition of a chromosome fragment.
Standard Mutation Pattern:
Mutated gene (mutated DNA) ➡️ mutated RNA ➡️ mutated protein.